Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access
photodiodes

Photodiodes: Principles and recent advances

Rita F. Pires, Vasco D. B. Bonifácio

Abstract


Photodiodes are on the rise. In the past decade many efforts have been made to deliver cheaper, more flexible, and increasingly better performing photodiode devices. The demand for enhanced optoelectronics led to the development of new inorganic, organic, and hybrid materials. In this review we describe in detail the working principles, the characterization, fabrication (types and architectures) and major applications of photodiodes. Recent applications, mainly in imaging, sensing and healthcare are also presented.

Keywords


Photodiodes; Photosensor; Photodetector; Organic Photodiodes; Diode applications;

Full Text:

PDF

References


A. Armin, M. Hambsch, I.K. Kim, P.L. Burn, P. Meredith, E.B. Namdas. Thick junction broadband organic photodiodes. Laser Photonics Rev. 2014, 8(6), 924–932.

X. Liu, Y. Lin, Y. Liao, J. Wu, Y. Zheng. Recent advances in organic near-infrared photodiodes. J. Mater. Chem. C 2018, 6(14), 3499–3513.

P.S. Bui, N.D. Taneja, U.S. Patent 6 593 636 B1, 2003.

R.A. Schmidt, M.O. Perley, R.A. Kuehm, U.S. Patent 8 290 726 B2, 2012.

D. Yang, D. Ma. Development of organic semiconductor photodetectors: From mechanism to applications. Adv. Optical Mater. 2018, 7(1), 1800522.

G. Ripoche, J. Harari. Optoelectronic sensors, John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, 2009.

B. Gray, Wiley Encyclopedia of Biomedical Engineering, John Wiley & Sons: Portsmouth, 2006.

D. Renker. Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes, history, properties and problems. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 2006, 567(1), 48–56.

A. Reznik, W. Zhao, Y. Ohkawa, K. Tanioka, J.A. Rowlands. Applications of avalanche multiplication in amourphous selenium to flat panel detectors for medical applications. J. Mater. Sci: Mater. Electron. 2009, 20(S1), 63–67.

O. Hayden, R. Agarwal, C.M. Lieber. Nanoscale avalanche photodiodes for highly sensitive and spatially resolved photon detection. Nat. Mater. 2006, 5(5), 352–356.

Z. Alaie, S.M. Nejad, M.H. Yousefi. Recent advances in ultraviolet photodetectors. Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 2015, 29, 16–55.

M. Baibarac, P. Gómez-Romero. Nanocomposites based on conducting polymers and carbon nanotubes: From fancy materials to functional applications. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 2006, 6(2), 289–302.

R. Saran, R.J. Curry. Lead sulphide nanocrystal photodetector technologies. Nat. Photonics 2016, 10(1), 81–92.

S. Riazimehr, S. Kataria, R. Bornemann, P.H. Bolívar, F.J.G. Ruiz, O. Engström, A. Godoy, M.C. Lemme. High photocurrent in gated graphene-silicon hybrid photodiodes. ACS Photonics 2017, 4(6), 1506–1514.

F. Bouzid, L. Dehimi, F. Pezzimenti. Performance analysis of a Pt/n-GaN schottky barrier UV detector. J. Electron. Mater., 2017, 46(11), 6563-6570.

R.D.J. Vuuren, A. Armin, A.K. Pandeley, P.L. Burn, P. Meredith. Organic photodiodes: The future of full color detection and image sensing. Adv. Mater. 2016, 28 (24), 4766–4802.

R.J. Keyes, P.W. Kruse, D. Long, A.F. Milton, E.H. Putley, M.C. Teich, H.R. Zwicker. Optical and infrared detectors in Topics in applied physics, Vol. 19 (R. J. Keyes Ed.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977.

L. Shi, Q. Liang, W. Wang, Y. Zhang, G. Li, T. Ji, Y. Hao, Y. Cui. Research progress in organic photomultiplication photodetectors. Nanomaterials 2018, 8(9), 713.

S. Arikata, T. Kyono, K. Miura, S. Balasekaran, H. Inada, Y. Iguchi, M. Sakai, H. Katayama, M. Kimata, K. Akita. Structural and electrical properties of InAs/GaSb superlattices grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy for midwavelength infrared detectors. Phys. Status Solidi A 2017, 214(3), 1600582.

Y. Qin, S. Long, H. Dong, Q. He, G. Jian, Y. Zhang, X. Hou, P. Tan, Z. Zhang, H. Lv, Q. Liu, M. Liu. Review of deep ultraviolet photodetector based on gallium oxide. Chin. Phys. B 2019, 28(1), 018501.

. N. Huo, G. Konstantatos. Recent progress and future prospects of 2D-based photodetectors. Adv. Mater. 2018, 30(51), 1801164.

X. Liu, G. Sun, P. Chen, J. Liu, Z. Zhang, J. Li, H. Ma, B. Zhao, R. Wu, W. Dang, X. Yang, C. Dai, X. Tang, Z. Chen, L. Miao, X. Liu, B. Li, Y. Liu, X. Duan. High-performance asymmetric electrodes photodiode based on Sb/WSe2 heterostructure. Nano Res. 2019, 12(2), 339–344.

G.M. Kumar, F. Xiao, P. Ilanchezhiyan, Sh. Yuldashev, A.M. Kumar, H.D. Cho, D.J. Lee, T.W. Kang. High performance photodiodes based on chemically processed Cu doped SnS2 nanoflakes. Appl. Surf. Sci. 2018, 455, 446–454.

J. Liu, Y. Li, Y. Song, Y. Ma, Q. Chen, Z. Zhu, P. Lu, S. Wang. Bi2Te3 photoconductive detectors on Si. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2017, 110(14), 141109.

P. Wangyang, C. Gong, G. Rao, K. Hu, X. Wang, C. Yan, L. Dai, C. Wu, J. Xiong. Recent advances in halide perovskite photodetectors based on different dimensional materials. Adv. Optical Mater. 2018, 6(11), 1701302.

Y. Tang, F. Wu, F. Chen, Y. Zhou, P. Wang, M. Long, W. Zhou, Z. Ning, J. He, F. Gong, Z. Zhu, S. Qin, W. Hu. A colloidal-quantum-dot infrared photodiode with high photoconductive gain. Small 2018, 14(48), 1803158.

S. Siontas, H. Wang, D. Li, A. Zaslavsky, D. Pacifici. Broadband visible-to-telecom wavelength germanium quantum dot photodetectors. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2018, 113(18), 181101.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J.S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, A.J. Heeger. High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm. Science 2009, 325(5948), 1665–1667.

T. Dhawan, Aarti, A. Kotnala, B.S. Chhikara. Organic Light Emitting Diode: Energy efficient material for sustainable green environment, Proceedings of National Conference RACSGSE-SBAP, 2017, 45-56.

S. Yoon, K. Min. Sim, D.S. Chung. Prospects of colour selective organic photodiodes. J. Mater. Chem. C 2018, 6(48), 13084–13100.

. I. Deckman, P.B. Lechêne, A. Pierre, A.C. Arias. All-printed full-color pixel organic photodiode array with a single active layer. Org. Electron. 2018, 56, 139–145.

N. Strobel, M. Seiberlich, T. Rödlmeier, U. Lemmer, G. Hernandez-Sosa. Non-fullerene based printed organic photodiodes with high responsivity and MHz detection speed. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2018, 10(49) 42733–42739.

G. Simone, D.D.C. Rasi, X. de Vries, G.H.L. Heintges, S.C.J. Meskers, R.A.J. Janssen, G.H. Gelinck. Near-infrared tandem organic photodiodes for future application in artificial retinal implants. Adv. Mater. 2018, 30(51), 1804678.

J.R. Wojciechowski, L.C. Shriver-Lake, M.Y. Yamaguchi, E. Füreder, R. Pieler, M. Schamesberger, C. Winder, H.J. Prall, M. Sonnleitner, F.S. Ligler. Organic photodiodes for biosensor miniaturization. Anal. Chem. 2009, 81(9), 3455–3461.

S.-T. Chuang, S.-C. Chien, F.-C. Chen. Extended spectral response in organic photomultiple photodetectors using multiple near-infrared dopants. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2012, 100(1), 013309.

R. Zhao, U. S. Patent 2019/0013360A1, 2019.

J. Ha, S. Yoon, J.-S. Lee, D.S. Chung. Organic-inorganic hybrid inverted photodiode with planar heterojunction for achieving low dark current and high detectivity. Nanotechnology 2016, 27(9), 095203.

J. Singh, R.G. Singh, S.K. Gautam, F. Singh. Multifunctional hybrid diode: Study of phosphorescence, high responsivity, and charge injection mechanisms. J. Appl. Phys. 2018, 123(17), 174503.

A. Pickett, A. Mohapatra, A. Laudari, S. Khanra, T. Ram, S. Patil, S. Guha. Hybrid ZnO-organic semiconductor interfaces in photodetectors: A comparison of two near-infrared donor-acceptor copolymers. Org. Electron. 2017, 45, 115–123.

A.D. Bartolomeo, G. Luongo, F. Giubileo, N. Funicello, G. Niu, T. Schroeder, M. Lisker, G. Lupina. Hybrid graphene/silicon Sckottky photodiode with intrinsic gating effect. 2D Mater. 2017, 4(2), 025075.

. J.-J. Wang, Y.-Q. Wang, F.-F. Cao, Y.-G. Guo, L.-J. Wan. Synthesis of monodispersed wurtzite structure CuInSe2 nanocrystals and their application in high-performance organic-inorganic hybrid photodetectors. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132(35), 12218–12221.

S.S. Mousavi, B. Sajad, M.H. Majlesara. Fast response ZnO/PVA nanocomposite-based photodiodes modified by graphene quantum dots. Mater. Des. 2019, 162, 249–255.

F. Zhao, K. Xu, X. Luo, Y. Liang, Y. Peng, F. Lu. Toward high uniformity of photoresponse broadband hybrid organic-inorganic photodiode based on PVP-modified perovskite. Adv. Optical Mater. 2018, 6(1), 1700509.

X. Liu, D. Yu, F. Cao, X. Li, J. Ji, J. Chen, X. Song, H. Zeng. Low-voltage photodetectors with high responsivity based on solution-processed micrometer-scale all-inorganic perovskite nanoplatelets. Small 2017, 13(25), 1700364.

Y. Wang, D. Yang, X. Zhou, D. Ma, A. Vadim, T. Ahamad, S.M. Alshehri. Perovskite/polymer hybrid thin films for high external quantum efficiency photodetectors with wide spectral response from visible to near-infrared wavelengths. Adv. Optical Mater. 2017, 5(12), 1700213.

F. Zhao, K. Xu, X. Luo, W. Lv, Y. Peng, Y. Wang, F. Lu, S. Xu. Ultrasensitivity broadband photodetectors based on perovskite: Research on film crystallization and electrode optimization. Org. Electron. 2017, 46, 35–43.

L. Dou, Y. Yang, J. You, Z. Hong, W.-H. Chang, G. Li, Y. Yang, Solution-processed hybrid perovskite photodetectors with high detectivity. Nat. Commun. 2014, 5, 5404.

A.A.M. El-Amir, T. Ohsawa, T. Nabatame, A. Ohi, Y. Wada, M. Nakamura, X. Fu, K. Shimamura, N. Ohashi. Ecofriendly Mg2Si-based photodiode for short-wavelength IR sensing. Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 2019, 91, 222–229.

H. Abdel-Khalek, M.I. El-Samahi, M.A.-El Salam, A.M. El-Mahalawy, Fabrication and performance evaluation of ultraviolet photodetector based on organic /inorganic heterojunction. Curr. Appl. Phys.2018, 18(12), 1496–1506.

A. Parbatani, E.S. Song, J. Claypoole, B. Yu. High performance broadband bismuth telluride tetradymite topological insulator photodiode. Nanotechnol. 2019, 30, 165201.

. R. Pan, H. Li, J. Wang, X. Jin, Q. Li, Z. Wu, J. Gou, Y. Jiang, Y. Song. High-responsivity photodetectors based on formamidinium lead halide perovskite quantum dot–graphene hybrid. Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 2018, 35 (4), 1700304.

A. Yazmaciyan, P. Meredith, A. Armin. Cavity enhanced organic photodiodes with charge collection narrowing. Adv. Optical Mater. 2019, 7(8), 1801543.

L. Wang, X. Zou, J. Lin, J. Jiang, Y. Liu, X. Liu, X. Zhao, Y.F. Liu, J.C. Ho, L. Liao. Perovskite/black phosphorus/MoS2 photogate reversed photodiodes with ultrahigh light on/off ratio and fast response. ACS Nano 2019, 13 (4), 4804–4813.

A. Liess, A. Arjona-Esteban, A. Kudzus, J. Albert, A.-M. Krause, A. Lv, M. Stolte, K. Meerholz, F. Würthner. Ultranarrow bandwidth organic photodiodes by exchange narrowing in merocyanine H- and J-aggregate excitonic systems. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2019, 29 (21), 1805058.

M. Biele, C.M. Benavides, J. Hürdler, S.F. Tedde, C.J. Brabec, O. Schmidt. Spray-coated organic photodetectors and image sensors with silicon-like performance. Adv. Mater. Technol. 2019, 4 (1), 1800158.

S. Yoon, K.M. Sim, D.S. Chung. Bifunctional etalon-electrode to realize high-performance color filter free image sensor. ACS Nano 2019, 13 (2), 2127–2135.

C.W. Jang, D.H. Shin, S.-H. Choi, Highly-flexible and -stable deep-ultraviolet photodiodes made of graphene quantum dots sandwiched between graphene layers. Dyes Pigm. 2019, 163, 238–242.

J.W. Lima, H. Wanga, C.H. Choia, H. Kwona, L.N. Quand, W.-T. Parke, Y.-Y. Nohe, D.H. Kima. Self-powered reduced-dimensionality perovskite photodiodes with controlled crystalline phase and improved stability. Nano Energy 2019, 57, 761–770.

Q. Looker, B.A. Aguirre, M.E. Hoenk, A.D. Jewell, M.O. Sanchez, B.D. Tierney. Superlattice-enhanced silicon soft X-ray and charged particle detectors with nanosecond time response. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 2019, 916, 148–153.

F. Elsamna, A. Bilgaiyan, M. Affiq, C.-H. Shim, H. Ishidai, R. Hattori. Comparative design study for power reduction in organic optoelectronic pulse meter sensor. Biosensors 2019, 9(2), 48.

. T. Rauch, M. Böberl, S.F. Tedde, J. Fürst, M.V. Kovalenko, G. Hesser, U. Lemmer, W. Heiss, O. Hayden. Near-infrared imaging with quantum-dot-sensitized organic photodiodes. Nat. Photonics 2009, 3, 332–336.

T. Abe, D. Katada, K. Miki, K. Tanaka, M. Nomura, Y. Inagaki, T. Tani, M. Ohtsuki, H. Kasada, K. Ando. High sensitive ultravioleta organic- inorganic hybrid photodetectors on ZnSSe grown on p-GaAs with transparent conducting polymer window-layer. Phys. Status Solidi C 2010, 7(6), 1706–1708.

T.N. Ng, W.S. Wong, M.L. Chabinyc, S. Sambandan, R.A. Street. Flexible Image sensor array with bulk heterojunction organic photodiodes. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2008, 92(21), 213303.

E.R. Fossum. CMOS image sensors: Electronic camera-on-chip. IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 1997, 44(10), 1689–1698.

H. Shekhar, V. Lami, O. Solomeshch, A. Fenigstein, L. Tomer, L. Becky, Y. Vanzof, N. Tessler. Doping induced performance enhancement in inverted small molecule organic photodiodes operating below 1V reverse bias – Towards compatibility with CMOS for imaging applications. Org. Electron. 2019, 67, 1–9.

I. Britvich, I. Johnson, D. Renker, A. Stoykov, E. Lorenz. Characterisation of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for medical imaging applications. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 2007, 571(1-2), 308–311.

X. Tang, M.M. Ackerman, M. Chen, P. Guyot-Sionnest. Dual-band infrared imaging using stacked colloidal quantum dot photodiodes. Nat. Photonics 2019, 13, 277–282.

B.L. Glebov, A. Waczynski, K.S. Jepsen, L.R. Miko. Stability of device responsivity in silicon photodiodes under cryogenic conditions. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 2018, 89(11), 113106.

W.-T. Kim, C. Park, H. Lee, I. Lee, B.-G. Lee. A high full well capacity CMOS image sensor for space applications. Sensors 2019, 19(7), 1505.

T. Agostinelli, M. Campoy- Quiles, J.C. Blakesley, R. Speller, D.D.C. Bradley, J. Nelson. A polymer/fullerene based photodetector with extremely low dark current for x-ray medical imaging applications. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2008, 93(20), 203305.

. B.-C. Juang, A. Chen, D. Ren, B. Liang, D.L. Prout, A.F. Chatziioannou, D.L. Huffaker. Energy-sensitive GaSb/AlAsSb separate absorption and multiplication avalanche photodiodes for x-ray and gamma-ray detection. Adv. Optical Mater. 2019, 1900107.

C. Dydula, G. Belev, P.C. Johns. Development and assessment of a multi-beam continuous-phantom-motion x-ray scatter projection imaging system. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 2019, 90, 035104.

S.B. Duun, R.G. Haahr, K. Birkelund, E.V. Thomsen. A ring-shaped photodiode designed for use in a reflectance pulse oximetry sensor in wireless health monitoring applications. IEEE Sens. J. 2010, 10(2), 261–268.

C.M. Lochner. Y. Khan, A. Pierre, A.C. Arias. All-organic optoelectronic sensor for pulse oximetry. Nat. Commun. 2014, 5, 5745.

T. Kaya, G. Liu, J. Ho, K. Yelamarthi, K. Miller, J. Edwards, A. Stannard. Wearable sweat sensors: background and current trends. Electroanalysis 2019, 31(3), 411–442.

Y. Yang, W. Gao. Wearable and flexible electronics for continuous molecular monitoring. Chem. Soc. Rev. 2019, 48 (6), 1465–1491.

N. Piazza, R.J. Wessells. Drosophila models of cardiac disease. Prog. Mol. Biol. Transl. Sci. 2011, 10, 155–210.

T. Pereira, T. Oliveira, M. Cabeleira, H. Pereira, V. Almeida, J. Cardoso, C. Correia. Comparison of low-cost and noninvasive optical sensors for cardiovascular monitoring. IEEE Sens. J. 2013, 13(5), 1434–1441.

D.R. Uguz, B. Venema, S. Leonhardt, D. Teichmann. Multifunctional photoplethysmography sensor design for respiratory and cardiovascular diagnosis. IFMBE Proceedings 2018, 68(2), 905–909.

G. Arora, N. Damle. Radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis of Primary Hyperparathyroidism. Chem. Biol. Lett., 2018, 5(1), 35-40.

. A. Satharasinghe, T. Hughes-Riley, T. Dias. Photodiodes embedded within electronic textiles. Sci. Rep. 2018, 8, 16205.

M.S.P. Reddy, P.T. Puneetha, Y.-W. Lee, S.-H. Jeong, C. Park. DNA-CTMA/a-Si:H bio-hybrid photodiode: A light-sensitive photosensor. Org. Electron. 2017, 50, 435–442.

M. Miyake, H. Nakajima, A. Hemmi, M. Yahiro, C. Adachi, N. Soh, R. Ishimatsu, K. Nakano, K. Uchiyama, T. Imato. Performance of an organic photodiode as an optical detector and its application to fluorometric flow-immunoassay for IgA. Talanta 2012, 96, 132–139.

I.F. Pinto, D.R. Santos, C.R.F. Caneira, R.R.G. Soares, A.M. Azevedo, V. Chu, J.P. Conde. Optical biosensing in microfluidics using nanoporous microbeads and amorphous silicon thin-film photodiodes: Quantitative analysis of molecular recognition and signal transduction. J. Micromech. Microeng. 2018, 28, 094004.

X. Wang, M. Amatatongchai, D. Nacapricha, O. Hofmann, J.C. deMello, D.D.C. Bradley, A.J. deMello. Thin-film organic photodiodes for integrated on-chip chemiluminescence detection-application to antioxidant capacity screening. Sens. Actuators B Chem. 2009, 140(2), 643–648.

A. Nascetti, M. Mirasoli, E. Marchegiani, M. Zangheri, F. Costantini, A. Porchetta, L. Iannascoli, N. Lovecchio, D. Caputo, G. Cesare, S. Pirrotta, A. Roda. Integrated chemiluminescence-based lab-on-chip for detection of life markers in extraterrestrial environments. Biosens. Bioelectron. 2019, 123, 195–203.

N.M.M. Pires, T. Dong. Microfluidic biosensor array with integrated poly(2,7-carbazole)/fullerene-based photodiodes for rapid multiplex detection of pathogens. Sensors 2013, 13(12), 15898–15911.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




ISSN 2394-0867