Cover Image

Structural analysis and dielectric characterization of Aurivillius type CaSrBi2Nb2O9 ceramics

Satish Khasa, Paramjeet Singh, Sujata Sanghi, Navneet Singh, Ashish Agarwal


This work describes synthesis of powdered materials belonging to the Aurivillius oxide family (Bi2O2)2+(An-1BnO3n+1)2- for n = 2 and provides an approach for understanding the structural evolution with composition. The effect of strontium doping on the lattice response and dielectric properties of Ca1-xSrxBi2Nb2O9 (x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0) ferroelectric ceramics is studied. The XRD studies revealed single phase formation of orthorhombic structure. The average crystallite size was obtained in the range 22-41 nm. The dielectric properties, viz. dielectric constant, loss tangent and ac electrical conductivity of the samples were studied by using impedance spectroscopy. A strong low frequency dielectric dispersion was found to exist in these samples. Its occurrence was ascribed to the presence of ionized space charge carriers such as oxygen vacancies. The relationship among doping, crystal structure, and dielectric properties were also discussed. Measurements of the dielectric permittivity as a function of temperature reveal signs of single phase transition. The thermal activation energy for the grain electric conductivity was lower in the high temperature region (Ea(ht) = 0.08 eV) and higher in the low temperature region (Ea(lt) = 0.21 eV).


Aurivillius oxide; impedance spectroscopy; electrical conductivity; solid-state reaction;

Full Text:



B. Aurivillius, ‘Mixed Bismuth Oxides with layer lattices :1, Structure type of CaBi2B2O9’,Ark. Kemi, 1952, 4, 39.

A. Ando, T. Sawada, H. Ogawa, M. Kimura, Y. Sakabe, ‘Fine tolerance resonator applications of Bismuth-Layer-Structured ferroelectric ceamics’, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 2002, 41, 7057.

A. Ando, M. Kimura, T. Minamikawa, Y. Sakabe, ‘ Layered piezoelectric ceramics for fine-tolerance resonator applications’, Int. J. Appl. Ceramic Technol. 2005, 2, 33.

P. Milan, A. Castro, J. B. Torrance, ‘The first doping of Pb2+ into the bismuth oxide layers of the C oxides’, Mater. Res. Bull. 1993, 28, 117.

A. Castro, P. Milan, R. Enjalbert, ‘Structural evolution of the Aurivillius framework in the solid solutions of Bi2WO6-Sb2WO6’, Mater. Res. Bull. 1995, 30, 871.

P. Milan, A. Ramirez, A. Castro, ‘ Substitution of smaller Sb3+ and Sn2+ cations for Bi3+ in Aurivillius like phases’, J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 1995, 14, 1657.

S. B. Desu, D.P. Vijay, ‘Novel fatigue-free layered structure ferroelectric thin film’, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 1995, 32, 75.

C. A. Paz de Araujo, J. D. Cuchlaro, L. D. McMillan, M. C. Scott, J. F. Scott, ‘Fatigue-free ferroelectric capacitors with platinum electrodes’, Nature. 1995, 374, 627.

J. F. Scott, F. M. Rose, C. A. Paz de Araujo, M. C. Scott, M. Huffman, ‘ Structure and device characteristics of SrBi2Ta2O9-based nonvolatile random-access memories’, MRS Bull. 1996, 21, 33.

T. K. Li, Y. Zhu, S. B. Desu, C. Peng, M. Nagata, ‘Metalorganic chemical vapour deposition of ferroelectric SrBi2Ta2O9 thin film’, Appl. Phy. Lett. 1996, 86, 29.

E. C. Subba Rao, ‘A family of ferroelectric bismuth compounds’, J. Phys. Chem. Solids. 1962, 23, 665.

T. Takenaka, K Sakata, ‘ Grain orientation and electrical properties of hot-forgrd Bi4Ti3O12 ceramics’, Jap. J. Apply. Phys. 1980, 19, 31.

K. Katori, N. Nagel, K. Watanabe, M. Tanaka, H. Yamoto, H. Yagi, 9th Int. Symp. On Integrated Ferroelectrics (Santa Fe, NM), 1997.

M. Nagata, D. P. Vajay, X. Zhang, S. B. Desu, ‘Formation and properties of SrBi2Ta2O9 thin film’, Phys. Status Solidi, 1996, 157, 75.

C. H. Lu, C. Y. Wen, ‘New non-fatigue ferroelectric thin film of barium bismuth tantalate‘, Mater. Lett. 1999, 38, 278.

T. Chen, T. K. Li, X . Zhang, S. B. Desu, ‘The effect of excess bismuth on the ferroelectric properties of SrBi2Ta2O9 thin film’, J. Mater. Res. 1997, 12, 1569.

J. H. Bi, L. Wu, J. Li, Z. H. Li, X. X. Wang, ‘Simple solvothermal routes to synthesize nanocrystalline Bi2MoO6 photocatalysts with different morphologies, Acta Mater. 2007, 55, 4699.

S. P. S. Badwal, “Proceedings of the International Seminar on Solid State Ionic Devices†(World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, 1988) p. 165.

S. M. Blake, M. J. Falconer, M. McCreedy, P. Lightfoot, ‘Cation disorder in ferroelectric Aurivillius phase of the type Bi2ANb2O9(A = BA, Sr, Ca)’, J. Mater. Chem. 1997, 7, 1609.

. C. Palanduz, D. M. Smyth, ‘Defect chemistry and charge transportation in SrBi2Nb2O9 ceramics’, J. Electroceram. 2003, 11, 191.

E. Barsoukov, J.R. Macdonald, Impedance Spectroscopy Theory, Experiment and Applications, Second ed., Wiley-Interscience Press, New York, 2005.

D. C. Sinclair, A.R. West, ‘Impedance and modulus spectroscopy of semiconducting BaTiO3 showing positive temperature coefficient of resistance’, J. Appl. Phys. 1989, 66, 3850.

N. Shivasankara, A. Narayanswami, N. Ponpandian, ‘Grain size effect on the dielectric behavior of nanostructured Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4’, J. Appl. Phys. 2007, 101, 084116.

B. A. Boukamp, ‘A linear Kroning-Kramers transform test for immittance data validation’, J. Electrochem. Soc. 1995, 142, 1885.

D. Dhak, P. Dhak, T. Ghorai, S. K. Biswas, P. Pramanic, ‘Preparation of nano-sized ABi2Nb2O9 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) ferroelectric ceramics by soluble Nb tartarate precursor and their dielectric characterization after sintering’, J. Mater Sci. 2008, 19, 448.

K. Sriniwas, P. Sarah and S. V. Suryanarayna, ‘Impedance spectroscopy study of polycrystalline Bi6Fe2Ti3O18’, Bull. Mater. Sci. 2003, 26, 247.

K. S. Rao, D. M. Prasad, P. M. Krishna, B. H. Bindu, K. Suneetha, ‘Frequency and temperature dependence of electrical properties of barium and gadolinium substituted SrBi2Nb2O9 ceramics’, J. Mater. Sci., 2007, 42, 7363.

A. R. James, S. Balaji, S. B. Krupanidhi, ‘Impedance-fatigue correlated studies on SrBi2Ta2O9 ’, Mater. Sci. Eng. B. 1999, 64, 149.

H. Yin, A.Zhou, N. Chang, X.Xu, ‘Characterization and photocatalytic activity of Bi3TiNbO9 nanocrystallines synthesized by sol-gel process’, Mater. Res. Bull. 2009, 44, 377.

J. H. Bi, L. Wu, Z.Li, X. X.Wang, X. Z. Fu, ‘A citrate complex process to prepare nanocrystalline PbBi2Nb2O9 at a low temperature‘, Mater. Lett. 2008, 62, 155.

C. X. Xu, X. Wei, Z. H. Ren, Y. Wang, G. Xu, G. Shen, ‘Olvothermal preparation of Bi2Wo6 nanocrystals with improved visible light photocatalytic activity‘, Mater Lett. 2009, 63, 2194.

T. Takenaka, K Sakata, ‘Composition and electrical properties of complex bismuth-layer-structured ferroelectric ceramics‘, Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 1985, 24, 117.

T. Takenaka, K Sakata, ‘Grain orientation effects on electrical properties of bismuth layer-structured ferroelectric Pb(1-x)(NaCe)x/2Bi4Ti4O15 solid solition‘, J. Appl. Phys. 1984, 55, 1092.

A. J. Moulson, J. M. Herbert, Electroceramics (Chapman and Hall, London, 1990).

S. Khasa, M. Dahiya, A. Agarwal. Structural Investigations of Lithium Vanadoxide Bismo-Borate Glasses. J. Integr. Sci. Technol., 2013, 1(1), 44-47.

V. Kumar, A.K. Bedyal, H.C. Swart, O.M. Ntwaeaborwa. Spectral and surface investigations on SrZnO2:Tb3+ nanophosphors. J. Integr. Sci. Technol., 2013, 1(1), 19-22.

R. Prakash. Growth and study of PrCoO3 thin films nanostructures deposited on various substrates. J. Integr. Sci. Technol., 2013, 1(1), 1-4.