Autonomy in Language Learning & Teaching

Anamika Shukla


There is a human need to continuously innovate and use language to construct new meaning to propagate human evolution. Language grows over time to deal with complexities and also undergoes changes in accordance with the needs of the language users. Thus new/complex language is innovated to handle and communicate new meaning. Language learning with the idea of learner’s autonomy is employed primarily to express ‘known meaning’ rather than to construct ‘unknown meaning’. The purpose is to facilitate the learning task into a creative task. The use of multicultural experiences and constraints facilitate creativity thereby laying emphasis on the autonomy of learner being a major psychology phenomenon. Autonomy is thus a multifaceted concept.


Autonomy, Learning, pedagogical principles

Full Text:



Aoki, N. and R. Smith (1999). Learner autonomy in cultural context: the case of Japan. In D. Crabbe and S. Cotterall (eds), Learner Autonomy in Language Learning: Defining the Field and Effecting Change, 19-27. Frankfurt: Lang.

Benson, P. (2001). Teaching and Researching Autonomy in Language Learning. Harlow: Longman/Pearson Education.

Dam, L. (1995). Learner Autonomy 3: From Theory to Classroom Practice. Dublin: Authentik.

Dam, L. and L. Legenhausen (1996). The acquisition of vocabulary in an autonomous learning environment - the first months of beginning English. In R. Pemberton et al. (eds), Taking Control: Autonomy in Language Learning, 265-80. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Holec, H. (1981). Autonomy and Foreign Language Learning. Oxford: Pergamon. (First published 1979, Strasbourg: Council of Europe.)

Karlsson, L., F. Kjisik and J. Nordlund (1997). From Here to Autonomy. A Helsinki University Language Centre Autonomous Learning Project. Helsinki: Helsinki University Press.

Legenhausen, L. (1999a). Language acquisition without grammar instruction? The evidence from an autonomous classroom, Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses 38: 63-76.

Legenhausen, L. (1999b). The emergence and use of grammatical structures in conversational interactions; comparing traditional and autonomous learners. In B. Mißler and U. Multhaup (eds), The Construction of Knowledge, Learner Autonomy and Related Issues in Foreign Language Learning, 27-40.

Legenhausen, L. (1999c). Traditional and autonomous learners compared: the impact of classroom culture on communicative attitudes and behaviour. In C. Edelhoff and R. Weskamp (eds), Autonomes Fremdsprachenlernen, 166-82. Munich: Hueber.

Little, D. (1991). Learner Autonomy 1: Definitions, Issues, and Problems. Dublin: Authentik.

Little, D. (1999). Developing learner autonomy in the foreign language classroom: a social-interactive view of learning and three fundamental pedagogical principles, Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses 38: 77-88.

Little, D. (2000a). Learner autonomy and human interdependence: some theoretical and practical consequences of a social-interactive view of cognition, learning, and language. In B. Sinclair, I. McGrath and T. Lamb (eds), Learner Autonomy, Teacher Autonomy: Future Directions, 15-23. Harlow: Longman/Pearson Education.

Little, D. (2000b). Learner autonomy: why foreign languages should occupy a central role in the curriculum. In S. Green (ed.), New Perspectives on Teaching and Learning Modern Languages, 24-45. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Little, D. (2002). The European Language Portfolio: structure, origins, implementation and challenges, Language Teaching 35.3: 182-9.

Little, D. and R. Perclová (2001). European Language Portfolio: guide for teachers and teacher trainers. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Littlewood, W. (2001). Students' attitudes to classroom English learning: a cross-cultural study. Language Teaching Research 5.1: 3-28.

Schärer, R. (2000). European Language Portfolio: final report on the pilot project. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Ushioda, E. and J. Ridley (2002). Working with the European Language Portfolio in Irish post-primary schools: report on an evaluation project. CLCS Occasional Paper No.61. Dublin: Trinity College, Centre for Language and Communication Studies.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 2348 –0874